The Beginner’s Guide to

Fishing has remained a viable activity for an extended period of time. This is because of the fact that it is a source of food for many individuals. There are many ways through which people are doing their fishing in recent times. This is made to ensure fishing remains a profitable venture. Having a fishing dock is one of the activities that is gaining popularity in recent times. There are various benefits of having a suitable fishing dock. That is the reason why this venture is gaining popularity in recent times.

When you are fishing in a dock, you will be assured of the security of the boat. There are various challenges that fishermen encounter when they are fishing in ordinary waters. When in the ocean, the ship can be attacked by a shark and other animals in the seas. There is a need for you to ensure you consider a fishing dock because you will have some peace of mind. You will also be able to have precise observation of the boat in the waters. When you are also doing your fishing in a dock, you will also be able to save time. This is because you will not do not have a long distance to cover when doing your fishing.

With fishing, there are some fishermen who usually take a long-distance when fishing. There are those who do this in the night while others do it during the day. When you have a fishing dock, you will be able to save time. Your fishing is also likely to yield better results. This is because you will not be required to put extra effort into your fishing. There are more individuals who will also be able to do the fishing themselves. This is quite different from when the activity is being done in abundant waters like the ocean.

There are some areas where the government charges those who are fishing there. This has to be a challenge for small fishermen. This is because they have those costs which they will have to deduct. There is a need for you too, therefore, embrace fishing docks because they will be able to save on those charges with a fishing dock. The owner will be able also to decide the breed of fish to keep. This will be essential because different individuals will have different preferences when it comes to fish. When a specific breed is maintained, this will ensure they save on the resources they have. They will also be able to save on costs for a more profitable project.

When you have a fishing dock, you will be able to enjoy a number of benefits. You will not only use the dock to do your fishing, but you can also use it to relax. It will also help you to access your boat. With these aspects being considered, there is a large number of individuals who are preferring to use the docks. There are many benefits that are attracted by a fishing dock.

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The Beginner’s Guide to

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Getting Down To Basics with

Importance of Visiting the Best Drugs and Alcohol Detox Center

Getting addicted to drugs and alcohol is something that usually affects everyone around you. Most of these are usually life distracting especially because they use your level of productivity. Having the right relationship with your family becomes difficult also because of the challenges of relating with you. Because this is not a good thing, you always have to find a solution that is going to work. It is always important to realize that there are a number of solutions that you could use today. One of the things you would realize is that you can always work with companies that are going to provide you with drugs and alcohol detoxification. You’ll be able to get all of the solutions when you go to the best drugs and alcohol treatment center. It will be very important for you to ensure that you have been able to find the best facility possible. Knowledge on the facilities that are available can be given when you decide to use the Internet. One of the biggest advantages is that the right facility will be able to give you the best services.

When you go to the best center of recovery, you’ll be able to get some is very critical because that is what is going to encourage you to keep going on. Using one or more of the different solutions that are going to be provided by the facility will also be critical, they have options. These drugs usually cause you to have a lot of toxins in your body, going through a detox program is one of the options. In addition to that however, you should also be able to get a partial hospitalization program for the facility. This program is usually very important especially because you’ll be able to get off campus housing. Getting to practice life skills will also be one of the biggest things that you realize.

Intensive treatment is also available from the facility and it is going to allow you to get outpatient services. Another advantage of these programs is that they provide residential treatment services whereby, you’ll be able to get a comprehensive set of services. One of the things you realize is that the residential treatment program means that you will be able to get a lot of care during the day or night.

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Case Study: My Experience With

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Universal Banking – Answer For The Best Banking Design?

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In recent years, universal banking has been growing its popularity in Indonesia. Mandiri Bank, for example, has taken strategy to become Indonesia’s universal bank; this bank has also initiated to develop an integrated financial risk system in terms of sounding financial performance and increasing shareholder value. In Germany, and most developed countries in Europe, universal banks have initiated its operations since nineteen century. There is mounting evidence that in those countries, universal banks have taken an important part in the development of real sectors and the financial system. In those countries, the growing numbers of universal banking practices are really supported by the regulation of central of bank.

Despite, in The United States, they are strict to regulate universal banks by blocking commercial banks from engaging in securities and stock markets practices. They argued that the practice of universal banking might be harmful for the financial system. ((Boyd et.al, 1998) cited in Cheang, 2004) The “risk” might be the key reason why the central bank of The U.S is worried about the universal banking system. Since, if the central of bank allowed banks to adjust their operation to be universal banks, the relationship among, banks, financial and stock markets would be closer. Consequently, this would give an uncertainty to the banks condition and performance. For example, if there were a disaster in stock market, banks would get problems in their financial positions. Thus, they would tend to be insolvent.

In addition universal banks would also threaten the market share of other specialized institutions, because more customers would choose universal banks that offer more option to their investment. Hence, more specialized institutions are likely to be ruined in the U.S financial industry.

One majoring factor, which is triggering a bank to be universal bank, is to increase the profit by enlarging their market share. According to João A. C. Santos (1998) universal bank itself can be defined as the financial institution, which enlarges its service range in terms of offering a variety of financial products and services in one site. Thus, by operating universal banking, banks could get a greater opportunity to expand to another financial area, such as : financial securities, insurance, hedge funds and etc.

Although the trend of banks has recently tended to universal banks, it is undoubtedly true that universal banks would also face further risks because a wide range of financial services is strongly associated with increasing risks and escalating monitoring costs. These are the major concerns why banks have to implement more advance technology in terms of financial risk management. Moreover, the practices of universal banks would cause significant risks to economy’s payment system. Since, the operation of universal banks connects closely to the financial and stock markets that are very fluctuate in a short term.

To win in the tight competition among financial institutions, banks have to alter their maneuver to lead in the market. Universal bank could be the wise choice for the bank manager, because they can attract more customers with a wide range of services. Furthermore, by altering their operation to the universal banking system, banks would get benefits from the efficiency and economies of scale.

In order to understand about the universal banking practices, this paper would examine the exclusive matters, which related to the risks and benefits in a universal bank. Moreover, this paper would also focus the whole impact of this institution to the financial system and the economy as a whole.

1.2 PROFITS AND COSTS IN UNIVERSAL BANKING: IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL BANKS

General problem related to financial intermediation, include universal banks and another type of banks, is about asymmetric information . It is the main problem that causes costs to increase and influence the performance of financial institutions. In Universal banks, the problems that would increase are slightly different with specialized banks; they are similar in that they should cope the risks problem associated with their financial position. Although, in universal banks, the risks are more bigger due to the wide range of financial instruments that they organized. Therefore, banks have to increase their spending on monitoring costs that are more complicated than specialized institutions or conventional banks.

Possible answer why more banks sacrifice to the escalating risks and transform it operation into the universal banking is that they want to compete and expand their market share, in order to seek a greater opportunity profits by serving more choices to their customers. Many banks has experienced a great performance after they alter their operation, the main concerns are that they could reach better economies of scale which can reduce the amount of spending in operational costs and also a greater opportunity to get more profits. The research finding which was conducted by Vender, R. (2002, cited in Cheang, 2004) about the efficiency of revenue in financial conglomerates and the level of both profit and cost in universal banking, has proved that both financial conglomerates and universal banking contain good performance in several indicators of bank profitability. His finding also suggests that the sustained expansion of financial conglomerates and universal banking practices may increase efficiency in the financial system.

This opinion is strengthen by another experts, like : George Rich and Christian Walter (1993). They state that universal banks which posse benefits over specialized institutions, are able to take advantage of reduction in the average cost of production and scope in banking. It is essential for banks that operate on a international level and in order to fulfill customer needs with a variety of financial services. They also mention a classic example how universal banks in some countries, such as : Switzerland, Germany and more European countries has experienced benefits by operating universal banking. In addition, they also state that the fear if universal bank would threaten specialized institutions has not proven. In Switzerland and Germany, for example, specialized institutions could achieve a better improvement in terms of cooperating with big banks. Universal banks are one of potential market channel which can sell their products directly to the customers, so specialized institutions also get additional return due to the increases in the number of universal banks. Therefore, this proves that universal banks do not threat other institutions; in fact, they support specialized institutions to market their products.

According to Fohlin, universal banking would lead to a bank’s concentration due to the increases the number of branch. Based on Germany’s experience, such branching-based expansion has led to the efficiency in banking because it could increase economies of scale in advertising and marketing, and open an enormous opportunity to enhance diversification and steadiness for banks.

A universal bank has unique position to tackle asymmetric information. As stated by Joao A. C. Santos (1998), that a universal bank has potential benefits on the reduction of agency cost and acquires profits due to information advantages. Although in other sides, universal banking also face problems related to the cost, conflict of interest and safety and soundness. But the default risk, which is generally happened in financial intermediation, would decrease substantially because universal banks are easier to control over their customers. Most of lenders in universal banks are their customers, so they can understand about the capacity of the customers from the information that they gather.

Nicholas Cheang (2004) also points out how universal banks could reduce a crucial problem in financial institution, asymmetric information. He argued that they could preserve a close relationship with their borrowers, by gathering more relevant information to make an important decision for investment. Their advantageous positions also vital to optimize the distribution of fund allocation, because banks have already known which investment that would give more margins to them. So, they don’t need to worry too much about the risk.

1.3 UNIVERSAL BANKS AND THE STABILITY IN THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM

Financial institution plays a vital role in terms of mobilizing funds in the economy. Consequently, stability in financial system is really important to manage by government in order to prevent wider implications to the real sectors. Financial disasters which happened in most countries in Asia in 1997 are the classic examples how importance to save banks to recover the economy.

As the financial supermarkets, which are handling a variety of financial instruments, they must face a greater risk than specialized institutions. As a consequence, this institution needs to be monitored closely in order to prevent more implications to the economy. According to Benston (1994), the escalating risks in universal banking would lead to a great problem because it can cause generous distress in the financial system. Hence, it will greatly increase the risk to the economy’s payment system. In another term, Rime and Strioh (2001) who examine the financial system in Switzerland in which universal banking are becoming more important in this country, state that difficulty in monitoring large universal banks is a major concern. This is the reason why universal bank has to spend more money in monitoring cost and develop an advanced system in information technology. In other words, it could say that the consequence of inefficient monitoring could lead to financial instability. (Cheang, 2004)

A wider range of universal banks in financial system makes the fund channels of banks to the customer are larger than specialized institutions. So, the economy will improve because universal banks will support more funding. This can be seen by the fact that a universal bank practice in Germany has triggered the progress of some enterprises performance in this country. (Stiglitz, 1985). It is understandable that when the allocation of fund can distribute widely and effectively to the potential enterprises, the economy will improve. In this context, universal banks have played as the key institution which mobilize fund to the potential lender.

Edwards (1996), has also proved that a universal bank is not just significantly contributed to economy from the external funds that they provide, but also from the improvement of the information flows. (cited in Cheang, 2004) Therefore, this proves that universal banks have played a significant role in terms of reducing the default risk by providing important information about the lender or customers. Furthermore, the safety of the financial system would be improved by the existence of universal banks.

1.4 CONCLUSION

The development of universal banks has to in line with the policy direction of central bank, because it is important to keep the stability of financial system and the economy as whole. There are three important areas that must be concerned related to universal bank operations, such as : the strengthened of capital and advanced risk management system. Consequently, in order to manage universal bank, people need to be aware about the unique of the risk type in universal banking. Furthermore, policy maker must also consider about the implication of universal banks in financial system.

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